»JUST STICK IT IN, BUT MIND THE HOLE«
A few Fragments about the Sexual Life of Austro–Hungarian Soldiers during World War I
The article deals with the sexual behavior of Austro-Hungarian soldiers during World War I. It is mostly based on autobiographical data from soldiers and their contemporaries. These show that, owing to the brutality and length of the war, sexuality eventually turned more aggressive, prostitution flourished and the number of infections with sexually transmitted diseases increased.
»IF YOU ARE NOT CHRISTIAN, STAY AWAY AND YOU WILL BE FINE«
Corpus Christi Processions in Ljubljana between the 16th Century and the Second World War
The article deals with the historical development of Corpus Christi processions between the 16th century and the Second World War in Ljubljana. The processions represented the dominant collective memories over the course of more than three centuries and thus reflected the political and ideological beliefs of a specific time and space. The article focuses on the role of the Corpus Christi processions as reminders of Hapsburg victories against the Ottomans in the Hapsburg monarchy and later in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Selective reconstruction of the memory of the fight against the Ottomans served as a basis for interpreting future social and political conflicts: the fight against the Reformation, Protestantism and “heresy”in the 17th century, the political struggle against liberal political thinking and “liberals”in the 19th century, and the national fight against ethnic Germans, who were marked as nemčurji”(a derogatory term for renegades) and later a”struggle”against Serbian-Croatian assimilation in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The examination of the historical development of processions offers an insight in the relationship between collective memory and identity during both the construction of the Hapsburg monarchy as well as the construction and structuring of the Slovenian nation.
200 YEARS OF THE CELJE–SAMOBOR WIESNER LIVADIĆ FAMILY
The Wiesner family, originally from Celje, made a significant contribution to Croatian cultural history over a period of 200 years. Ferdinand Wiesner from Celje, lawyer and composer, was 10 when he inherited an estate and a mansion from his aunt, who was his father’s sister and the widow of the court advisor Franjo von Tisztapataky; the 10-year old moved to Samobor with his parents. He was the central figure of the Illyrian movement in Croatia,”the first and finest musician of Illyria as was epitomized by Napoleon from a political and Janko Drašković and Ljudevit Gaj from a literary and political sense”. In Illyrian fashion, he translated his family name into Livadić. His mansion,”the Illyrian Nest” in Samobor, became a meeting place for famous protagonists of the Illyrian movement, among them Ferdo’s good friend, the Slovenian-Croatian poet Stanko Vraz. Ferdinand’s son, Kamilo Wiesner–Livadić, was a lawyer, notary and (amateur) opera singer, who performed in the first Croatian opera Love and Hate by Vatroslav Lisinski. His grandson Branimir was a writer, a member of Croatian Modern, a literary theoretician and president of the Croatian Pen Club between the world wars. Ferdinand’s great grandson and Kamilo’s grandson, Kamilo Tompa, was a painter, scenographer and university professor.
»GIVE US GOOD HOUSEWIVES AND THE WORLD WILL BE NICE!«
Housework and its Legacy in Slovenia at the Beginning of the 20th Century
The article presents an overview of housework in Slovenia at the beginning of the 20th century on the basis of an analysis of the Naša gospodinja (Our housewife) magazine: the magazine of Slovenian housewives and girls, in which the author is interested in the position of the woman and the identity of a wife, mother and housewife at that time. The article provides an overview of household chores, characteristics of good housewives in the household domain as well as a housewife’s role in a patriarchal family. The author examines the interconnection of all identities related to females in the household domain and, by examining the available literature on housework, tries to provide an answer to the question of why today women still do most housework by themselves. The author seeks the reasons for the exclusion of women from public life and for their position in the private sphere of home, family and household. It also deals with the dynamism of women’s identity creation, with the social constructs of femininity and the process of naturalization in which the functioning of modern ideology is hidden.
NATIONAL CONFLICTS AMONG MOUNTAINEERS IN SLOVENIA BEFORE WORLD WAR I
In the introductory part, the article briefly presents the development of mountaineering in Slovenia with a focus on the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. This was the time when the first hiking associations were established. The first were German, followed by the first Slovenian one at the end of the 19th century. At the same time, this was the time of ethnic tension between the Germans and Slovenes, tensions which were also felt in the mountains. The Germans built cabins in the Slovenian mountains and erected signs and signposts in German only. This evidently showed that they saw Slovenian soil as German. Once they established their own Hiking Association, the Slovenians resisted this, which led to conflict and tension and a fight for the mountains.
THE GREAT JAPANESE EMPIRE IN ALMA KARLIN’S TRAVEL DIARIES
The literary and other heritage of the Celje intellectual and traveler Alma M. Karlin has attracted considerable attention over the last two decades. Researchers praise the anti-parochialism and determination that she exercised in pursuit of her goals, qualities that few of us possess today, despite all our technical aids. Often emphasized is her fascination with Japan, which to her indeed represented her locus amoenus. The article tries to put into context her travel diaries about this country, which in her time still qualified as an empire. Since Karlin is sometimes, though not frequently, reproached with a negative attitude towards the indigenous people”living beyond the Seven Seas”, the main aim will be to find out where and how her image of the colonized Other in the Great Japanese Empire originated.
THE WRONG VALVASOR HOUSE IN KRŠKO IN THE HANDS OF HIS DISTANT RELATIVE AND IMMEDIATE SUCCESSORS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE 19TH CENTURY – REASON FOR THE »FATEFUL« MISTAKE ?
The Forgotten Museum Enthusiast Anton von Hohenwart (1768–1846)
New discoveries have confirmed the author’s assumption that the old town house in Krško, which for a century and a half was believed to have been the last home of the Carniolan polymath Janez Vajkart Valvasor (1641-1693), was owned by his successors, the Dienersperg Barons. This fact nearly led to the mistaken belief that the house belonged to Valvasor (1859). Besides this, the Dienerspergs inherited the house from Anton von Hohenwart (1768-1846), who owned it between 1826-1846 and who was a descendant of Valvasor’s half-brother Karl and who possibly also contributed to the belief that the house once belonged to the Carniolan polymath. Von Hohenwart, a history aficionado, left to the Carniolan Regional Museum in Ljubljana his relatively rich collection of old artifacts and documents. His house, which served as a kind of a private museum in the second quarter of the 19th century, a fact once completely forgotten, today accidentally happens to be part of the Krško City Museum.