THE ROLE OF WOMEN AT 1883/84 MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS IN THE MUNICIPALITY CELJE-SUBURBS
Based on archival and newspaper material the author analysed the elections to the municipal committee of the Municipality Celje-suburbs in 1883/84, and tried to present them in the light of »female suffrage«. This was used as means of manipulation by the political party of Germans as well as of the Slovenes. In very different ways they both tried to acquire election warrants from their female voters.
»Should the ladies ride a bike?«
Female Cyclists and Female Body at the Turn of the 19th Century
In his article the author presents multi-layered relations between the two simultaneously emerging phenomena of female emancipation and female cycling (and female sport activities in general) by analysing the opposing views of Anton Aškerc, a famous writer, to female cyclists and the replies to his views. Thus, female cycling as a massive and popular phenomenon at the turn to the 20th century depicts very interesting views on the role of female body in the period of modernisation, when the norms about what is healthy and beautiful were under the pressure of social changes.
»WHY DO WE NEED THESE WOMEN’S NEWSPAPERS?«
Female question and the relation to women in Slovakian women’s newspapers until the collapse of Hapsburg monarchy.
The first Slovakian women’s newspaper The Dennica was published in 1898. It can be considered as the first larger independent enterprise of Slovakian women, which had also an all-Slovakian character. Due to repressive relation of Hungarian authorities to the second-rate Slovakian ethnical community, the newspaper also published articles, which were hiding Slovakian national question in the female issues. The Dennica, as well as a few years’ younger women’s newspaper The Živena strongly restricted the complexity of female question. Both newspapers aimed particularly at spiritual and religious awakening of women so that they could operate more successfully in their families and thus also for their nation. The Dennica and The Živena did not publish any articles about feminism and female emancipation, which were already present in the West at the time; the first articles with such content, although very limited, appeared sporadically as late as in the years before the First World War.
THE DRUNK AND THE SQUANDERING
Revocation stories of the Radovljica court circuit in the last decade of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy
In the described period (the last decade of Austria-Hungary and the beginning of the new state) the institution of revocation was the last measure to which the authorities could have resorted with which they could deprive chronically drunk proprietors of the right to do business. Thus they could not squander all their fortune and burden the municipal public purse with the responsibility of maintaining themselves and their families. When determining this business inability, the court circuits issued interesting notes depicting how the drunkenness of proprietors (farmers) was looked upon in the society at the time. The prevailing belief at the time was, that men could drink since this was the habit in the country, and that there was nothing to worry about if they got drunk from time to time. Women, on the contrary, were reprimanded for any kind of drunkenness and had to prove themselves to be good housewives – otherwise they could have been even held responsible for drinking habits of their husbands.
»THE PRIEST SAID THAT WOMEN SHOULD HAVE BEEN SEALED«
The inluence of World War I on divorce
During the Great War there was a sharp increase in adultery (fornication) all over Europe. The proof for that could be found also in an increase of demands with which deceived husbands impugned their paternity in the court of law after the war. However, a sharp increase in divorce cases (separations) in 1919 was not a direct consequence of female adultery. In 1919, sixty spouses filed for divorce in the Celje court circuit – that is almost three times more than in 1914. However, in 27 preserved divorce papers the adultery of wives in the time when their husbands were fighting on the front was only three times the most important ground for divorce. Among the most important reasons for divorce prevailed – as before the war – violence, repeated insults, and “malicious abandonment”.
About “the first Slovene women’s newspaper”
Wih the example of women’s newspaper The Slovenka we can follow how the writing about »the first Slovene women’s newspaper« offered the opportunity to talk about Marica Nadlišek (1867-1940) as »the first Slovene female editor«, about Elvira Dolinar (1870-1961) as »the first Slovene feminist«, or about Zofka Kveder (1878-1926) as »the first Slovene female writer«.
While »the first women’s newspaper« as a particularity, an achievement, and a gain is in the centre of memorial events in politics and memorial celebrations, the place of »the second women’s newspaper« is unoccupied, even more, it was never realised. Four newspaper projects in the period 1919-1944/45 which were also called The Slovenka should have formed the genealogy which created from »the first Slovene women’s newspaper« also »the first Slovene women’s newspaper called The Slovenka«.
»SHE SHOULD HELP HER HUSBAND NOT ONLY IN THE FAMILY BUT ALSO IN BROADER, NATIONAL LIFE«
The images of Carinthian Slovene men and women in the period between the wars
Based on the example of Slovene minority in Carinthia, the article deals with various links between sex and nation. Conservative notions about female and male sex and their specific role influenced the ideology, politics, the operation of societies, etc. Patriarchal family was considered the “vital cell” of the nation, and a wife and a mother, faithful to the God and the nation, as “the soul” of a family. The emancipation of women would thus not only pose a threat to the established social order, but also to the very existence of the minority. Therefore, the minority organisations and publications – particularly The Koroški Slovenec, the most important paper in the period 1921 -1941 (which was also the main source to this article) – strove to preserve traditional relations between both sexes.
»SHE WILL NEVER COME BACK AGAIN«
The murder near Celje or a contribution to the dark side of the history of women striving to get a husband
The author deals with a robbery and brutal murder of the servant Ivanka Zakrajšek in Čreto near Celje in the autumn of 1938. A vicious and perfidious murderer Jurij Zabukošek was soon captured. In April 1939 he was taken to court, sentenced to death penalty, and in September 1939 he was hanged in the yard of the goal. The murdered woman got acquainted with the murderer through a marriage advertisement to which replied several other women (mostly servants) seeking a marriage partner. This microhistorical analysis is a case study, which enlightens a broader phenomenon. Numerous women tried to find a husband through newspaper advertisements and become independent housewives. Particularly the servants, who had to work hard, often dreamed about the prince on a white horse, waited to meet a suitable husband, and saved to bring more savings to the marriage. Women who were seeking a husband and had enough savings were also attractive for criminals and some of them cheated and robbed or even murdered many unsuspicious women using various criminal methods of seeking a bride.